December 23, 2011
Local wine enthusiast and vintner Bill Velto of Upland is interested in growing his own grapes for his home winemaking hobby and asked me about the different grape growing techniques found the vineyard.
Bill and his wife Jody recently returned from California’s Central Coast where they toured Edna Valley Vineyard. “We travel about 3 times a year to Paso Robles wine country. I have noticed that some of the vineyards have different types of trellis,” said Velto.
“At Edna Valley, outside their tasting center, is an informative demonstration vineyard with 14 rows of vines, each row displaying either a different type of grape variety or trellis growing system design. It was interesting and fun to sample the different varieties of grapes used in winemaking. The most common that were seen was the Anchor End Post System with a Tie Back Post. The grape’s tastes were so different, the tart and sour of some, and the sweetness of others, it gave me a new appreciation for the fruit. I am interested in the different types of grapes, trellises and what the differences are.”
Edna Valley’s Paragon Vineyard first planted in 1974, is located in the heart of the valley and represents the first major investment in growing premium wine grape varieties in this cool growing region.
The winery was built six years later, and Edna Valley’s reputation soon flourished. As part of Diageo Wines, Edna Valley Vineyards (EVV) is a leading producer in this respected growing region. EVV produces estate-grown Chardonnay, and has recently expanded its operation to accommodate the increase in its production of premium red wines. The winery also produces Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Gris, Viognier, Roussanne, Grenache, Mourvedre, Petite Sirah, Muscat Canelli, and Ruby Port.
Here’s a cluster of the featured varieties growing at Edna Valley:
— Sangiovese which produces the best-known red wines in Italy: Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano and Brunello di Montalcino. Sangiovese offers lightly colored wines with firm tannins and good acidity, with fruity aromas and flavors.
Grown on a “Verticle Shoot Positioned” VSP trellis, based upon a bilateral cordon of permanent wood with spur-pruned shoot positions along the arms. The VSP holds the shoots in place by at least four foliage wires and all shoots are trained upwards. This design keeps the canopy away from the fruit and allows the grapes to receive full sun and air exposure and helps control excess vine vigor.
— Semillon is the second-most planted white varietal in France. This versatile grape makes a wide range of wines from very dry to sweet dessert types. The vine offers medium-sized clusters and is moderately vigorous with an upright growing habit. VSP trellis.
— Symphony is a modern varietal developed at UC Davis in 1948 by crossing Grenache Gris and Muscat of Alexandria – both used for making off-dry white table wine and sparkling wines. VSP trellis.
— Syrah hails from the Rh ne wine region in Southern France, and is known as Shiraz in Australia and by some American vintners. Its skin is black when fully ripe and displays black cherry and blackberry flavors, a lush wine with a full, viscous mouthful with medium tannin. Grown on a “Smart Dyson” system, the vine is normally spur pruned with half the shoots trained upwards, allowing the fruit to receive more sun exposure and reducing the need to remove leaves.
— Pinot Noir is the noble, red Burgundy varietal of France. This grape prefers a cooler climate and is moderately vigorous. Clusters are small in size and cylindrical in shape. Berries are small and blue-black in color. Grown on a “Scott Henry” system, this design similar to VSP, vertically separates the canopy but half the shoots are trained upwards and the other down. Vine is caned pruned.
— Merlot is one of Bordeaux’s noble red varietals (with Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon). A very vigorous vine in fertile soil, its clusters are medium-small and long in shape with reddish-black to black berries. This vine features the “Ballerina” trellis system, a variant of the Scott Henry which half the shoots are trained upwards and balance downwards. The lower shoots are left to fall naturally which provides fruit protection from the sun in areas prone to sunburn.
— Cabernet Sauvignon is the king of all reds. World renown for producing fine, long-lived wines. Vine growth is very vigorous in an upright position. Clusters small and long shaped with black colored berries. The “Lyre” system divides the canopy horizontally with shoots trained to grow vertically upwards, increasing sun exposure and allowing air movement around the vine.
— Sauvignon Blanc, also originated in Bordeaux, is a very aromatic varietal that makes some of the world’s most popular dry white wines. A very vigorous vine that produces small, conical and compact clusters with medium-large green berries. The Lyre system is utilized.
Zinfandel, grown primarily in California, this popular red is reported to have originated in Croatia as Crljenak. This moderately vigorous vine offers clusters that are medium-large, cylindrical and compact. Berries are reddish-black to black in color. Vines are traditionally “head trained” with support of a wood stake, and spur pruned which results in very small pruning wounds and consequently, excellent vine longevity and resistance to fungal infections after pruning. Nearly all the original Cucamonga Valley’s Zinfandel were planted as head trained vines.
Bill also shared with me that his grandfather Filippo Spina lived in New York City and made his own wine from grapes purchased from the local farmer’s market. Bill’s mother told stories how when her father would disassemble their barrels each year, he would have her smell the wood until she could no longer smell the wine from previous years. Bill said his appreciation for wine is in his blood, and that his brother Alex has introduced him to many more vintages than he would not have found on his own.